Reference Page Info


Frame Types:

Primary frame names are flat phrase-structure representations of the frames, intended to be generalizable across classes. Some of the names include dot-extensions that indicate a thematic role type or underscore-extensions that indicate a complement type. These extensions can be used to subdivide frame types or ignored to use more general frame types. The names are a revision of the previous naming system, in which frames had both descriptive primary names and more specific secondary names that subdivided the frame types. The downloadable .xml files of the classes include the old primary and secondary names in the "secondary" feature, for those who still wish to use the information. The web pages do not display them, but they are included here for reference.

Image for thematic roles needs to go here

General Thematic Roles


Affector

Description: No description found

Example: No examples found

Agent

Description: Actor in an event who initiates and carries out the event intentionally or consciously, and who exists independently of the event.

Example: THEY decided to go.

Asset

Description: A Theme considered valuable to one or more participants in the event, especially money.

Example: No examples found

Attribute

Description: Circumstance that is a property of an entity or entities, as opposed to the entity itself.

Example: Oil increased IN PRICE.

Axis

Description: The point or object around which the Theme travels in elliptical motion

Example: No examples found

Beneficiary

Description: Undergoer in a state or an event that is (potentially) advantaged or disadvantaged by the event or state.

Example: Martha carved a toy FOR THE BABY.

Causer

Description: An Actor in an event that initiates and effects the event and that exists independently of the event.

Example: No examples found

Circumstance

Description: No description found

Example: No examples found

Co-Agent

Description: An Actor in an event who initiates and carries out the event intentionally or consciously, with equal responsibility to the Agent, and who exists independently of the event.

Example: No examples found

Co-Patient

Description: An Undergoer in an event, with equal status to the Patient, that is usually structurally changed, for instance by experiencing a change of state or condition; is often acted upon by an agent, is causally involved or directly affected by other participants; and exists independently of the event.

Example: No examples found

Co-Theme

Description: An Undergoer, with equal status to the Theme, that is central to an event or state, does not have control over the way the event occurs, is not structurally changed by the event, and/or is characterized as being in a certain position or condition throughout the state.

Example: No examples found

Destination

Description: Goal that is a concrete, physical location.

Example: Tamara poured water INTO THE BOWL.

Duration

Description: Length or extent of time.

Example: The party continued FOR TWO HOURS.

Eventuality

Description: No description found

Example: No examples found

Experiencer

Description: Patient that is aware of the event undergone, which often involves an emotional or psychological response elicited by a Stimulus (specific to events of perception).

Example: THE CHILDREN tasted the pea soup.

Extent

Description: Value indicating the amount of measurable change to a participant over the course of the event.

Example: No examples found

Goal

Description: The end point (possibly metaphoric) of the action, which exists independently of the event.

Example: No examples found

Initial_Location

Description: Source that indicates the concrete, physical location where an event begins or a state becomes true.

Example: Amanda drove the package FROM HOME.

Initial_State

Description: Source that indicates the state in which an entity begins.

Example: Need an example

Instrument

Description: Undergoer in an event that is manipulated by an agent, and with which an intentional act is performed; it exists independently of the event. For all roles containing symmetrical participants, we assume that the ordering is non-arbitrary and may be pragmatically determined and/or related to figure-ground considerations; however, the usefulness of this distinction may be application-specific.

Example: Jennifer baked the potatoes IN THE OVEN.

Location

Description: Place that is concrete.

Example: Herbicides persist IN THE SOIL.

Maleficiary

Description: No description found

Example: No examples found

Manner

Description: Way or style of performing an action, or the degree/strength of a cognitive or emotional state.

Example: We lived ON $10 PER DAY.

Material

Description: Patient that exists at the starting point of action (inheritance from Source), which is transformed through the event into a new entity; concrete or abstract.

Example: An oak tree will grow FROM THAT ACORN.

Path

Description: Path is the ‘region’ the motion traverses; the connecting region between the source and goal (both concrete and abstract) locations.

Example: She reached her hand OUT.

Patient

Description: An Undergoer in an event that is usually structurally changed, for instance by experiencing a change of state or condition; is often acted upon by an agent; is causally involved or directly affected by other participants; and exists independently of the event.

Example: Brutus murdered JULIUS CAESAR.

Pivot

Description: Theme that participates in an event with another theme unequally. Pivot is much more central to the event (thereby distinguishing it from Co-Theme).

Example: THE RANCHER owns twelve oxen.

Precondition

Description: An event or state of affairs that precedes or partially precedes another event or state and is necessary for that other event or state to occur.

Example: No examples found

Product

Description: A concrete object that is the end point of the action and comes into existence through the action (i.e., a subtype of Result).

Example: AN OAK TREE will grow from that acorn.

Recipient

Description: An animate end point of the action (i.e., a subtype of Destination).

Example: They lent a bicycle TO ME.

Reflexive

Description: No description found

Example: No examples found

Result

Description: Goal that comes into existence through the event.

Example: He strangled his victims TO DEATH.

Source

Description: The starting point (possibly metaphoric) of an action; it exists independently of the event.

Example: I gleaned FROM THE EVIDENCE how she did it.

Stimulus

Description: Cause in an event that elicits an emotional or psychological response (specific to events of perception).

Example: THE PEA SOUP tasted delicious.

Subeventuality

Description: No description found

Example: No examples found

Theme

Description: Undergoer that is central to an event or state that does not have control over the way the event occurs, is not structurally changed by the event, and/or is characterized as being in a certain position or condition throughout the state.

Example: THE BALL rolled down the hill.

Topic

Description: Theme characterized by information content.

Example: Susan chitchatted with Rachel ABOUT THE PROBLEM.

Trajectory

Description: Trajectory refers to the path or the 'region' the motion traverses when the motion event expresses a change of location.

Example: He came THROUGH THE DOOR.

Value

Description: Place along a formal scale.

Example: He put the probability AT 0.9.

Predicates


abide_by

Description: No description found

Classes containing abide_by: 2

about

Description: Communication or a social event in relation to a Theme.

Classes containing about: 6

act

Description: No description found

Classes containing act: 29

adjusted

Description: No description found

Classes containing adjusted: 1

admit

Description: An Agent allows an entity Theme to enter a Location.

Classes containing admit: 2

alive

Description: An animate Patient is alive at the beginning or end of the event.

Classes containing alive: 4

allow

Description: An Agent or organization allows a Beneficiary to engage in an activity (Theme).

Classes containing allow: 5

appear

Description: A Theme appears during an event in a Location.

Classes containing appear: 2

apply_heat

Description: Using an Instrument, heat is applied to a Patient.

Classes containing apply_heat: 1

apply_material

Description: An Agent applies a Material to a Patient.

Classes containing apply_material: 1

approve

Description: An animate Agent or organization approves a Theme.

Classes containing approve: 3

assess

Description: An animate Agent or organization assesses a Theme to determine its Attribute/Value.

Classes containing assess: 7

attached

Description: An Agent attaches a Patient or Co-Patient using an Instrument.

Classes containing attached: 6

attempt

Description: An animate Agent or organization attempts an activity (Theme).

Classes containing attempt: 3

authority_relationship

Description: An authority and a subordinate enter into a relationship.

Classes containing authority_relationship: 12

avoid

Description: An animate Agent avoids a Theme or Location

Classes containing avoid: 4

be

Description: No description found

Classes containing be: 32

become

Description: No description found

Classes containing become: 1

believe

Description: An animate Agent or organization believes a Theme to be in some event or state.

Classes containing believe: 3

benefit

Description: A Beneficiary benefits from some event.

Classes containing benefit: 22

body_motion

Description: An Agent performs an action or motion with a part of his/her body.

Classes containing body_motion: 8

body_process

Description: An animate Agent undergoes a bodily process.

Classes containing body_process: 17

body_reflex

Description: An animate Experiencer undergoes a bodily reflex, possibly in response to a Stimulus.

Classes containing body_reflex: 3

body_sensation

Description: No description found

Classes containing body_sensation: 5

calculate

Description: An animate Agent or organization uses a plural Theme or a Theme and a Co-Theme to calculate some result.

Classes containing calculate: 4

cause

Description: An Affector (Agent, Cause, Stimulus, or Precondition) causes an event.

Classes containing cause: 282

change_value

Description: A Patient moves along a scale in some Direction to attain a new value.

Classes containing change_value: 4

characterize

Description: An animate Agent or organization characterizes a Theme as an Attribute

Classes containing characterize: 7

charge

Description: A human Agent or organization apprehends a human Patient for some crime/Theme.

Classes containing charge: 2

co-temporal

Description: No description found

Classes containing co-temporal: 18

completed

Description: No description found

Classes containing completed: 1

conclude

Description: An animate Agent or organization concludes an activity/Theme from a Source.

Classes containing conclude: 3

confined

Description: A Theme is confined.

Classes containing confined: 2

conflict

Description: An Agent or Co-Agent (animate or organization) engage in conflict.

Classes containing conflict: 5

contact

Description: Two participants come into physical contact.

Classes containing contact: 27

contain

Description: A Pivot contains a Theme.

Classes containing contain: 14

control

Description: No description found

Classes containing control: 1

cooked

Description: A Patient is cooked into a certain Form.

Classes containing cooked: 1

cooperate

Description: An animate Agent or organization cooperates with another animate or organizational Agent/Co-Agent on some Theme.

Classes containing cooperate: 4

correlated

Description: No description found

Classes containing correlated: 1

cost

Description: The cost of an event or or item is equal to a monetary Asset.

Classes containing cost: 10

covered

Description: An Agent covers a Patient with a Material.

Classes containing covered: 1

create_image

Description: No description found

Classes containing create_image: 5

declare

Description: A human or organizational Agent declares an Undergoer (as some Attribute/Result).

Classes containing declare: 7

dedicate

Description: An animate or organizational Agent dedicates a Theme, often reciprocal, to a Goal.

Classes containing dedicate: 1

degradation_material_integrity

Description: An Patient or Co-Patient's wholeness is broken down.

Classes containing degradation_material_integrity: 7

depend

Description: A Theme depends on an Agent or Pivot.

Classes containing depend: 1

desire

Description: A Participant desires a Theme or Stimulus.

Classes containing desire: 7

destroyed

Description: An Agent destroys a concrete Patient.

Classes containing destroyed: 1

develop

Description: No description found

Classes containing develop: 2

differ

Description: No description found

Classes containing differ: 3

disappear

Description: A Patient disappears from an Initial Location during an event

Classes containing disappear: 2

discomfort

Description: A body part Patient experiences discomfort

Classes containing discomfort: 2

discourage

Description: No description found

Classes containing discourage: 2

discover

Description: An animate Agent or organization learns of a Theme possibly from a source

Classes containing discover: 1

do

Description: A participant engages in an action.

Classes containing do: 165

duration

Description: No description found

Classes containing duration: 2

earn

Description: A Theme earns a value/ asset

Classes containing earn: 1

elliptical_motion

Description: No description found

Classes containing elliptical_motion: 2

emit

Description: Some kind of Theme is emitted from a Participant

Classes containing emit: 10

encourage

Description: No description found

Classes containing encourage: 1

endangered

Description: No description found

Classes containing endangered: 3

endure

Description: No description found

Classes containing endure: 1

engage_in

Description: No description found

Classes containing engage_in: 22

ensure

Description: A Theme is ensured, possibly for a Beneficiary

Classes containing ensure: 1

equals

Description: Indicates that two roles are equivalent.

Classes containing equals: 21

exceed

Description: A Theme exceeds a Co-Theme in some Attribute (by an Extent)

Classes containing exceed: 1

exert_force

Description: An Affector exerts force on a Theme

Classes containing exert_force: 9

fictive_motion

Description: No description found

Classes containing fictive_motion: 3

financial_interaction

Description: No description found

Classes containing financial_interaction: 1

financial_interest_in

Description: A Theme or an Asset is placed in a financial interest, or Goal.

Classes containing financial_interest_in: 2

Find

Description: No description found

Classes containing Find: 1

finish

Description: No description found

Classes containing finish: 1

free

Description: A Theme is liberated from a Source.

Classes containing free: 3

full_of

Description: No description found

Classes containing full_of: 3

function

Description: A Theme fulfills or performs some function.

Classes containing function: 3

give_birth

Description: An Agent gives birth to a Patient.

Classes containing give_birth: 2

handle

Description: No description found

Classes containing handle: 6

harm

Description: No description found

Classes containing harm: 4

harmed

Description: A body part Patient is harmed.

Classes containing harmed: 6

harmonize

Description: An Theme corresponds or harmonizes with a Co-Theme.

Classes containing harmonize: 1

has_attribute

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_attribute: 9

has_boundary

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_boundary: 1

has_capacity

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_capacity: 1

has_configuration

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_configuration: 3

has_designation

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_designation: 3

has_emotional_state

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_emotional_state: 21

has_information

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_information: 51

has_location

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_location: 117

has_material_integrity_state

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_material_integrity_state: 4

has_organization_role

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_organization_role: 9

has_orientation

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_orientation: 2

has_physical_form

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_physical_form: 7

has_position

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_position: 8

has_possession

Description: A Participant has possession of a Theme or Asset.

Classes containing has_possession: 36

has_role

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_role: 3

has_sentiment

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_sentiment: 3

has_set_member

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_set_member: 5

has_spatial_relationship

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_spatial_relationship: 3

has_state

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_state: 55

has_temporal_location

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_temporal_location: 4

has_value

Description: No description found

Classes containing has_value: 7

help

Description: An Affector helps a Beneficiary possibly with some project or activity/Theme.

Classes containing help: 3

in_reaction_to

Description: A reaction occurs based on a Stimulus or Theme.

Classes containing in_reaction_to: 21

indicate

Description: A Cause indicates a Topic to a possible Recipient.

Classes containing indicate: 3

injury

Description: No description found

Classes containing injury: 3

intend

Description: No description found

Classes containing intend: 3

intrinsic_motion

Description: No description found

Classes containing intrinsic_motion: 2

involuntary

Description: A Participant has an involuntary bodily reaction.

Classes containing involuntary: 4

involved

Description: No description found

Classes containing involved: 3

irrealis

Description: No description found

Classes containing irrealis: 14

judge

Description: No description found

Classes containing judge: 3

limit

Description: A Cause limits a Patient, possibly to some Goal.

Classes containing limit: 1

made_of

Description: A Product or Result consists of a Material.

Classes containing made_of: 3

manner

Description: One or more Participants contribute to an event in a certain manner.

Classes containing manner: 38

meets

Description: Event 0 and Event 1 intersect (temporally).

Classes containing meets: 2

mingled

Description: A Patient and a Co-Patient, or Patients, are physically mixed or together.

Classes containing mingled: 6

motion

Description: An Agent or a Theme is in motion.

Classes containing motion: 86

necessitate

Description: A Pivot requires a Theme of/from some Source.

Classes containing necessitate: 1

occur

Description: An eventive Theme occurs.

Classes containing occur: 10

operate_vehicle

Description: No description found

Classes containing operate_vehicle: 2

opposition

Description: No description found

Classes containing opposition: 5

overlaps

Description: No description found

Classes containing overlaps: 10

pace

Description: No description found

Classes containing pace: 2

part_of

Description: No description found

Classes containing part_of: 23

penetrating

Description: No description found

Classes containing penetrating: 1

perceive

Description: A Participant preceives a Stimulus or Theme.

Classes containing perceive: 8

perform

Description: An Agent gives a performance of some Theme.

Classes containing perform: 4

procreate

Description: No description found

Classes containing procreate: 3

relate

Description: A Theme relates/pertains to a Co-Theme.

Classes containing relate: 2

repeated_sequence

Description: No description found

Classes containing repeated_sequence: 4

require

Description: A Participant requires an Undergoer from a Source or to engage in a Result.

Classes containing require: 2

reside

Description: No description found

Classes containing reside: 1

rotational_motion

Description: A Theme rotates.

Classes containing rotational_motion: 2

satisfy

Description: An Agent satisfies a Theme, or requirement, with an Instrument.

Classes containing satisfy: 1